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学位英语阅读理解分享讲解:问题性试题

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发表于 2013-9-11 12:37:00 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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目的型题(Purpose
【例   
题】
We find that bright children are rarely held back by mixed –ability teaching. On the contrary, both their knowledge and experience are enriched. We feel that there are many disadvantages in streaming(把按能力分班)pupils. It does not take into account the fact that children develop at different rates. It can have a bad effect on both the bright and the not-so-bright child. After all, it can quite discouraging to be at the bottom of the top grade!
Besides, it is rather unreal to grade people just according to their intellectual ability. This is only one aspect of their total personality. We are concerned to develop the abilities of all our pupils to the full, not just their academic ability. We also value personal qualities and social skills, and we find that mixed-ability teaching contributes to all these aspects of learning.
In our classrooms, we work in various ways. The pupils often work in groups: this gives them the opportunity to learn to co-operate, to share, and to develop leadership skills. They also learn how to cope with personal problems as well as learning how to think, to make decisions, to analyze and evaluate, and to communicate effectively. The pupils learn from each other as well as from the teacher.
Sometimes the pupils work in pairs; sometimes they work on individual tasks and assignments, and they can do this at their own speed. They also have some formal class teaching when this is appropriate. We encourage our pupils to use the library, and we teach them the skills they need in order to do this efficiently. An advanced pupil can do advanced work: it does not matter what age the child is. We expect our pupils to do their best, not their least, and we give them every encouragement to attain this goal.
The author’s purpose in writing this passage is to _____.
A)       argue for teaching bright and not-so-bright pupils in the same class
B)        recommend pair work and group work for classroom activities
C)       offer advice on the proper use of the library
D)       emphasize the importance of appropriate formal classroom teaching
【解题思路】
这一题要求阅读时不但要看懂个别的句子,
而且要能够根据作者思路的展开,把握作者在整篇文章中赞成什么反对什么,看懂全篇文章的意思。
【测试要点】
针对文章写作目的进行提问的方式通常有:
1.       What is the purpose of the author in writing this passage?
2.       What is the purpose of the passage?
3.       What does the author aim to do in writing this passage?
4.       This passage aims to …….
【解题技巧】
本类题要求学生首先了解文章的主题。同做主旨题一样,文章的开头、结尾及段落的段首句和段尾句特别重要,因为它们不仅包含文章的中心议题,也包含了作者的写作意图。有些阅读文章的写作目的也要靠通过对全文的理解进行推断而得出。

【答案解析】
文章中讨论了两种上课的方式:streaming pupils,即把学生按能力分班进行教学,和mixed-ability teaching,即把程度不齐的学生混班上课。并列举了前者的弊端和后者的优点。因此A项是答案。而选项BCD中提到的几种做法均为mixed-ability teaching的具体做法,
都不能看作是作者写这篇文章的目的。
【参考译文】
3)细节性题(Details
【例   
题】
Just seven years ago, the Jarvik—7 artificial heart was being cheered as the model of human creativeness. The sight of Barney Clark —— alive and conscious after trading his diseased heart for metal-and-plastic pump —— convinced the press, the public and many doctors that the future had arrived. It hadn’t. After monitoring production of the Jarvik—7, and reviewing its effects on the 150 or so patients (most of whom got the device as a temporary measure) the U.S. Food and Drug Administration concluded that the machine was doing more to endanger lives than to save them. Last week the agency cancelled its earlier approval, effectively banning(禁止)the device.
       The recall may hurt Symbion Inc., maker of the Jarvik—7, but it won’t end the request for an artificial heart. One problem with the banned model is that the tubes connecting it to an external power source created a passage infection. Inventors are now working on new devices that would be fully placed, along with a tiny power pack, in the patient’s chest. The first sample products aren’t expected for another 10 or 20 years. But some people are already worrying that they’ll work —— and that ’s overextended health care programs will lose a precious $2.5 billion to $5 billion a year providing them for a relatively few dying patients. If such expenditures(开支)cut into funding for more basic care, the net effect could actually be a decline in the nation’s health.
       According to the passage the Jarvik—7 artificial heart proved to be _____.
A)       a technical failure
B)        a technical wonder
C)       a good life—saver
D)       an effective means to treat heart disease
【解题思路】
细节性问题是关于Supporting Details类的问题。通过Skimming找出主题后,应进一步掌握阐述和发展主题的主要事实,或按要求找出特定细节。
【测试要点】
            
细节类问题的命题方式有以下几种:
1
Which of the following is NOT true according to the information in the passage?
2
Which of the following is mentioned in the passage?
3
What is the example of ...... as described in the passage?
4
The author mentions all of the following except ......
5
The reason for ...... is ......
6
The author states that .......
7
According to the passage, when (where, why, how, who, etc.) ......
【解题技巧】
细节性问题所涉及的面很广。有的涉及数字计算,如问时间、距离、次数、数量等,认真计算后方可选定正确答案;有的涉及正误判断,要先看选项,根据选项提供的线索,寻视文中相应部分,最后在题中选出肯定答案;还有的寻问事实、原因、结果、目的等。总之,做细节题切忌通过自己对某类知识的主观了解和认识做出想像判断,一定要紧扣文章内容,不可随心所欲。

在回答此类问题时,应采用查读法(Scanning);因为这些具体内容(Details)是用来说明、论证或分析文章中心的。这类题目常以WH-形式来提问,如who, what, when, where, whyhow等形式。这些问题的表达常不可能采用文章中的原话提问,而是使用同义词语等,因此在选择答案前应首先,看准题干,看清问题所问究竟;然后,在查读时注意寻找与题目相关的关键词语;最后,在充分理解原文、原题的基础上确定正确答案。
【答案解析】
本题是考核学生根据上下文全面理解和进行正确判断的能力,问的是本文论述的Jarvik—7人造心脏性能和效果到底如何。文章一开头说Jarvik—7是一大技术成就,但文章说到
… the U.S. Food and Drug Administration concluded that the machine was doing more to endanger lives than to save them (Line 5—7).后面以提到:Last week the agency cancelled its earlier approval, effectively banning the device.这两句话提供了这个问题的答案。因此,答案是选项A,也就是说Jarvik—7人造心脏在技术上是一个失败。

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发表于 2013-9-18 16:46:00 | 显示全部楼层

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发表于 2013-9-24 20:50:00 | 显示全部楼层

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发表于 2013-9-27 15:49:00 | 显示全部楼层

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发表于 2013-10-3 21:27:00 | 显示全部楼层

回复 1# qawwawa07 的帖子

好题 好资料

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发表于 2013-10-7 11:08:00 | 显示全部楼层

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发表于 2013-10-11 12:56:00 | 显示全部楼层

回复 1# qawwawa07 的帖子

很好 顶起了啊

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发表于 2013-10-15 12:21:00 | 显示全部楼层

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发表于 2013-10-19 22:04:00 | 显示全部楼层

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发表于 2013-10-24 12:58:00 | 显示全部楼层
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